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Summary of Core Facilities

Cognitive Function

• Object Recognition

Object Placement

• Social Discrimination Memory

• Spontaneous Alternation

• Morris Water Maze

• Sensorimotor gaiting

• Radial Arm Maze

• Conditioned Taste Aversion

Affective / Emotional Behaviors

• Social Interaction

• Social Preference

• Social Transmission of Food Preferences

• Reproductive and mating behavior

• Open Field

• Marble Burying (neophobia, compulsions)

• Elevated Plus Maze (anxiety)

• Light/Dark Box (anxiety)

• Acoustic Startle

• Porsolt (Forced Swim) Test

Tests of Analgesia

• Von Frey

Sensorimotor Function

• Open Field (activity, habituation, sensitization)

• Rotarod

• Grip Strength

• Gait analysis and toe spread

• Balance Beam (motor coordination)

• Visual Placing (visual acuity)

• Visual Cliff

• Pupil dilation

Other

• Functional Observation Battery

• Estrous Cycle Staging

• Ultrasonic vocalizations

• Behavioral Tracking software (

• Conditioned Place Preference / Aversion

• Grooming

• Stereotypies

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Recognition Memory and Spatial Memory

Summary of Core Facilities

Cognitive Function

• Object Recognition

• Object Placement

• Social Discrimination Memory

• Spontaneous Alternation

• Morris Water Maze

• Sensorimotor gaiting

• Radial Arm Maze

• Conditioned Taste Aversion

Labyrinth Maze

Affective / Emotional Behaviors

• Social Interaction

• Social Preference

• Transmission of Food Preferences

• Reproductive and mating behavior

• Open Field

• Marble Burying

• Elevated Plus Maze

• Light/Dark Box

• Acoustic Startle

• Porsolt (Forced Swim) Test

Maternal behavior

Novelty Supression of Feeding

Anhedonia

 

TTests of Analgesia

• Von Frey

Cold Tail Flick

 

Sensorimotor Function

• Open Field

• Rotarod

• Grip Strength

• Gait analysis and toe spread

• Balance Beam

• Visual Placing

• Visual Cliff

• Pupil dilation

Tape removal test

 

Other

• Functional Observation Battery

• Estrous Cycle Staging

• Behavioral Tracking software

• Conditioned Place Preference

• Grooming

• Stereotypies

Developmental milestones (pups)

Homing (pups)

Play (juvenile)

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Recognition Memory and Spatial Memory

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Recognition and spatial memory can be assessed in the object recognition and placement tasks [1-3]. These tasks utilize the innate tendency of rats to preferentially explore novel objects, and thus do not require food or water deprivation or exposure to stressful conditions. Furthermore, because these are one-trial tasks, extensive training is also not required and it can thus accommodate large numbers of subjects. Another advantage is that difficulty of the task can be altered by changing the retention interval between trials or by decreasing the duration of the training trials. In addition, visual and spatial working memory can be assessed under similar conditions, stimulus exposures, and retention intervals. Since multiple tests can be performed on the same subjects (i.e. multiple retention intervals and/or both spatial and visual tests, before and after an experimental intervention) it is theoretically possible to perform powerful within subjects and cross-over comparisons. Finally, both these tasks have high translational validity as they are similar to cognitive tests performed in humans [4-9].

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Data Analysis and Illustration

These data are typically represented in several ways.

1) the absolute time of novel object exploration in sec

2) an exploratory preference score (time spent exploring the novel object divided by the total time spent exploring both objects X 100). An exploratory preference score of 50% indicates chance performance, while higher preference scores indicate intact memory performance.

3) As a % of animals that perform the task to a certain criteria (such as 55% preference).

4) as a discrimination index of new (sec) –old (sec)/ total (sec).

 

1. Ennaceur, A. and K. Meliani, A new one-trial test for neurobiological studies of memory in rats. III. Spatial vs. non-spatial working memory. Behav Brain Res, 1992. 51(1): p. 83-92.

2. Ennaceur, A. and J.P. Aggleton, Spontaneous recognition of object configurations in rats: effects of fornix lesions. Exp Brain Res, 1994. 100(1): p. 85-92.

3. Ennaceur, A. and J. Aggleton, The effects of neurotoxic lesions of the perirhinal cortex combined to fornix transection on object recognition memory in the rat. Behav Brain Res, 1997. 88(2): p. 181-93.

4. Caterini, F., et al., Object recognition and object orientation in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 2002. 16(2): p. 146-55.

5. Bearden, C.E., et al., The neurocognitive phenotype of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: selective deficit in visual-spatial memory. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 2001. 23(4): p. 447-64.

6. Bova, S.M., et al., The development of visual object recognition in school-age children. Dev Neuropsychol, 2007. 31(1): p. 79-102.

7. Heckers, S., et al., Abnormalities in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex during episodic object recognition in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 2000. 48(7): p. 651-7.

8. Lawrence, A.D., et al., Visual object and visuospatial cognition in Huntington's disease: implications for information processing in corticostriatal circuits. Brain, 2000. 123 ( Pt 7): p. 1349-64.

9. Rapport, L.J., S.R. Millis, and P.J. Bonello, Validation of the Warrington theory of visual processing and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 1998. 20(2): p. 211-20.

Summary of Core Facilities

Cognitive Function

• Object Recognition

• Object Placement

• Social Discrimination Memory

• Spontaneous Alternation

• Morris Water Maze

• Sensorimotor gaiting

• Radial Arm Maze

• Conditioned Taste Aversion

Labyrinth Maze

Affective / Emotional Behaviors

• Social Interaction

• Social Preference

• Transmission of Food Preferences

• Reproductive and mating behavior

• Open Field

• Marble Burying

• Elevated Plus Maze

• Light/Dark Box

• Acoustic Startle

• Porsolt (Forced Swim) Test

Maternal behavior

Novelty Supression of Feeding

Anhedonia

 

Tests of Analgesia

• Von Frey

Cold Tail Flick

 

Sensorimotor Function

• Open Field

• Rotarod

• Grip Strength

• Gait analysis and toe spread

• Balance Beam

• Visual Placing

• Visual Cliff

• Pupil dilation

Tape removal test

 

Other

• Functional Observation Battery

• Estrous Cycle Staging

• Behavioral Tracking software

• Conditioned Place Preference

• Grooming

• Stereotypies

Developmental milestones (pups)

Homing (pups)

Play (juvenile)

sidelinks3

Summary of Core Facilities

Cognitive Function

Object Recognition

Object Placement

Social Discrimination Memory

Spontaneous Alternation

• Morris Water Maze

• Sensorimotor gaiting

• Radial Arm Maze

• Conditioned Taste Aversion

Labyrinth Maze

Affective / Emotional Behaviors

Social Interaction

Social Preference

Transmission of Food Preferences

Reproductive and mating behavior

Open Field

Marble Burying

Elevated Plus Maze

• Light/Dark Box

• Acoustic Startle

Porsolt (Forced Swim) Test

Maternal behavior

Novelty Supression of Feeding

Anhedonia

 

Tests of Analgesia

Von Frey

Cold Tail Flick

 

Sensorimotor Function

Open Field

Rotarod

Grip Strength

• Gait analysis and toe spread

Balance Beam

• Visual Placing

• Visual Cliff

• Pupil dilation

Tape removal test

 

Other

Functional Observation Battery

Estrous Cycle Staging

• Behavioral Tracking software

• Conditioned Place Preference

• Grooming

• Stereotypies

Developmental milestones (pups)

Homing (pups)

Play (juvenile)

Summary of Core Facilities

Cognitive Function

Object Recognition

Object Placement

Social Discrimination Memory

Spontaneous Alternation

• Morris Water Maze

• Sensorimotor gaiting

• Radial Arm Maze

• Conditioned Taste Aversion

Labyrinth Maze

Affective / Emotional Behaviors

Social Interaction

Social Preference

Transmission of Food Preferences

Reproductive and mating behavior

Open Field

Marble Burying

Elevated Plus Maze

• Light/Dark Box

• Acoustic Startle

Porsolt (Forced Swim) Test

Maternal behavior

Novelty Supression of Feeding

Anhedonia

 

Tests of Analgesia

Von Frey

Cold Tail Flick

 

Sensorimotor Function

Open Field

Rotarod

Grip Strength

• Gait analysis and toe spread

Balance Beam

• Visual Placing

• Visual Cliff

• Pupil dilation

Tape removal test

 

Other

Functional Observation Battery

Estrous Cycle Staging

• Behavioral Tracking software

• Conditioned Place Preference

• Grooming

• Stereotypies

Developmental milestones (pups)

Homing (pups)

Play (juvenile)